Will Artificial Intelligence Create Job Opportunities Or Destroy Jobs



Since the beginning of the third millennium, the world has witnessed a new industrial revolution, which is the fourth industrial revolution, which is the name that the World Economic Forum in Davos launched in 2016 on the current stage of the series of industrial revolutions that humanity witnessed.

Human societies went through three previous industrial revolutions, the first was in the middle of the eighteenth century when the steam engine was invented, which marked the beginning of a new industrial era, in which society transformed from a rural agricultural society to an industrial society that inhabited cities, using mechanical energy and coal, and steam machines replaced Labor.

Then came the second industrial revolution in the middle of the nineteenth century with the emergence of electricity and it led to an increase in factory production, and with it the jobs and the labor market grew dramatically, and during which many major discoveries and inventions appeared.

With the invention of computers in the middle of the twentieth century, and the emergence and spread of the Internet in the last two decades of it, the third industrial revolution began, which was characterized by being a digital revolution, during which industrial automation and the great technological development in machines, networks, and communications, which led to an acceleration of production and increased employment opportunities. Education, and improving the standard of living.

As for the fourth industrial revolution that we are currently living in, it was an extension of the tremendous achievements made in the era of the information and communication technology revolution, during which pioneering technologies and creative innovations emerged, such as 3D printing, the Internet of things, robots, self-driving vehicles, artificial intelligence technologies, and other technologies. Which we are witnessing its development day by day.

Among the achievements of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, artificial intelligence has emerged as one of the biggest achievements that have radically changed and changed the shape of the world around us.

Artificial Intelligence and Unemployment Concerns

Although the technologies that accompanied each of the first three industrial revolutions eliminated a number of jobs and manual or mechanical works, they opened new doors for other jobs, and workers are heading every time to jobs in new industrial and service fields that these technologies create.

Despite the advantages of artificial intelligence and its ability to improve living conditions, health conditions and achieve well-being for societies, there are still many fears of widespread unemployment among human workers in the event that robots take over more human tasks, especially since a number of large companies have already begun to dispense with Jobs that do not require experience or have low qualifications.

For example, the global Amazon company uses drones and foot robots to deliver postal parcels in some cities of the world, instead of postmen and truck drivers. The American chain of stores "Wal-Mart" intends to operate cleaning robots in its stores within a short period. It has also designated a chain of stores. Food "Gent" has about 500 robots to perform routine tasks such as reviewing and reporting risks arising from the presence of waste or spillage of materials. We also mention the recent announcement by the "Valnet" company, the launch of a customer service platform through an artificial intelligence system to receive customer requests from their cars.

Experts have shed light on the results of investing in artificial intelligence technologies and its negative effects on the labor market in various countries of the world, as indicated by “Erkley Pires”, head of the Artificial Intelligence Center at the United Nations Institute for Crime Research, who pointed to the risks related to many people losing their jobs. Robots replace them.

According to a study presented by the global consulting firm McKinsey, half of the current employment can be replaced by robots and machines that use artificial intelligence, which saves $ 16 trillion in global salaries.

According to the 2016 World Economic Forum, 7 million jobs will disappear in 2020 and 2 million new computer and software jobs will appear.

And it was found through another study conducted by the Economic Cooperation Organization in 2015 in 34 countries, most of them from the rich countries, that 14% of the current jobs are exposed to great risk, and 32% are exposed to less risk, and the study concluded that about 210 million jobs in 32 countries are at risk. .

Dangerous jobs fit for android

Perhaps the most important reasons for the use of robots and artificial intelligence techniques are primarily economic reasons, such as increasing production, increasing working hours, reducing paid salaries, reducing labor expenses and health and social security expenses, but there are humanitarian reasons that make it useful to transfer many jobs from human labor to Mechanized labor, due to its difficult conditions that require the risk of life or work in unhealthy and inhumane conditions.

For example, industrial welding poses a great danger to workers, as a result of exposure to extreme heat, the dangers of light radiation and toxic fumes, and other occupations such as nuclear waste disposal, firefighting, and sewage pipe repair pose great dangers and harsh conditions, which makes these tasks more appropriate. For non-human labor.

New jobs created

Apart from the wave of pessimism that accompanied the artificial intelligence revolution and talks about widespread unemployment and the collapse of the global economy, and the numbers that indicate this, and although artificial intelligence will take over most of the jobs that people currently work in, some decision-makers believe that the control of artificial intelligence over These are jobs that will be offset by the creation of millions of new jobs in emerging technologies and specialized services that people must perform.

Cognizant Information Technology has identified fifty job categories that are likely to prosper in the future. Those working in the field of algorithms and automation will be in complete safety, in addition to workers in health departments, legal services, financial jobs, and fitness-related jobs, which depend on the creativity, art, and the exchange of emotions, Imagination, and guesswork.

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