Future Technologies For Achieving Food Security

 


The world population is increasing by about three people every second, equivalent to 250 thousand people per day, and by 2025 the world population will reach 8 billion people, and it is expected that the population of the planet will reach about 9.6 billion people in 2050, according to the numbers.

With this expected large increase in population, there are increasing concerns about providing food, achieving food security for the Earth’s population, and preserving arable lands, especially with the exacerbation of climate change problems, depletion of oil resources, and pollution of water and soil.

To cope with this steady increase, farmers must increase food production while preserving the environment and use natural resources rationally, but they cannot do it alone, and traditional farming methods do not enable them to do so.

Modern technologies play a decisive role in helping to meet the growing food needs of the world's population, through the use of data management and analysis systems, remote control technologies, in addition to the use of the most prominent technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution such as artificial intelligence, robotics and the Internet of Things, in order to make agriculture more productive and profitable, And less harm to the environment and less consumption of earth's resources.


The concept of smart farming:

Smart agriculture can be defined as a system that relies on advanced technology in growing food in sustainable and clean ways, and rationalizing the use of natural resources, especially water, and one of its most prominent features is its reliance on management and information analysis systems to make the best possible production decisions at the lowest costs, as well as the automation of agricultural processes such as irrigation and Control Pest control, soil control, and crop control.


Smart Agriculture and the Internet of Things:

Internet of Things (IoT) technology is one of the most prominent technologies used in smart agriculture. It is simply the process of connecting any device to another device via the Internet, from mobile phones to household appliances and machines used in factories and agricultural fields, so that they can be operated and controlled, and send and receive data from them. Via the Internet.

Among the most prominent applications of the Internet of Things in smart agriculture is the so-called precision agriculture, that is, the approach used in farm management and crop control through information and communication technology, sensors, remote control systems, and autonomous machines, with the aim of obtaining accurate data, and investing this data in directing agriculture. A careful orientation towards greater production with lower cost and higher quality crops.

For example, remote sensors placed in the fields allow farmers to obtain detailed maps of both the terrain and resources of the area, as well as measure variables such as acidity, soil temperature, and humidity, and they can also predict weather patterns for days and weeks to come.

Precision agriculture based on the Internet of things helps to make better decisions to improve agricultural production, in addition to that the data that is collected and analyzed plays a major role in monitoring agricultural pests, and accurately determining the number of pesticides required to avoid their excessive use, as well as the processes of collecting and analyzing data in use. Al-Rasheed for irrigation water.

IoT technologies achieve great benefit for greenhouse owners, by monitoring the temperature, light levels, humidity, air pressure, and water consumption inside the greenhouse through an electronic portal that allows farmers to receive notifications when any change in this information occurs, and it is also possible to remotely control lifting devices or Reducing the temperature, controlling the lighting level and opening and closing windows via the Internet.


Another important application of the Internet of Things in smart agriculture is the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to monitor and evaluate crops, photograph farmland and map, measure air components, in addition to spraying crops with pesticides quickly and safely, and sending data instantly to software that analyzes it and directs farmers to Take better actions.

Robotic farms:

Late last year, the US company Iron Oaks opened the first  farm  where robots play the role of farmers instead of humans, by carrying out many human tasks.

The company has actually launched agricultural products produced by the robot, the "Angus" farmer, responsible for the most important operations on this farm. This robot uses an ingenious arm that slips into large aquariums planted with all kinds of edible plants. The machine learning program that runs the robot identifies plants showing signs of pests or diseases and removes them before they spread throughout the pond.

The company seeks to produce agricultural products in places close to stores and within smaller areas that the robotic farm needs compared to a traditional farm, which will help it in the future to provide fresh, high-quality health products available to everyone at reasonable prices.

Smart agriculture at the Arab level

The Arab region is one of the regions facing major environmental crises, such as lack of arable water, climate change, drought, and desertification, which negatively affect the provision of food and achieving food security.

Therefore, it can be said that the Arab region is one of the regions most in need of applying smart agricultural techniques, but there are difficulties encountered in this, the most important of which is the weakness of the communication and Internet infrastructure in some Arab countries, and the need for these technologies for skills that many farmers do not possess, in addition to the material cost that It is a handicap for many.

Therefore, adopting smart agriculture policies requires strengthening joint Arab action, exchanging knowledge and ideas about the Internet of Things technology, and including communication and information technology as a fundamental factor for sustainable agriculture development.

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